My research focuses on protecting vulnerable populations, including refugees, internally displaced persons, returnees, victims of trafficking, migrants, women, and children in sub-Saharan Africa, an underrepresented region of the world. One of my research projects, “Civil Wars and the Stumbling of Patriarchal Society: The Reconstruction of Gender Relations in Post-Conflict Liberia,” is online ( Other research projects include:

  1. Security Sector Reform (SSR): a coup proofing mechanism in the Mano River Union (MRU).

Why do some countries experience coups and others not after long-standing armed conflicts within the same region, particularly the Mano River Union (MRU)? This article links security sector reform (SSR) to coup-proofing mechanisms through an overview of coups and coups’ plots within the MRU. It predicts that countries that did not attempt or conduct SSR at the end of long-lasting conflicts are likelier to experience coups than countries that carry out SSR. Comparing countries within the region, I find that Liberia and Sierra Leone are less likely to experience coups than Guinea and Ivory Coast, which did not consider overhauling their security institutions under the auspices of SSR.  

2. Who are Terrorists: Criminals or Combatants?

The current literature reveals that the classification of terrorists as criminals are based on the criminal element, incredibly violent attacks. At the same time, the classification of combatants resonates with military force against terrorist groups. The pros’ primary contention is that terrorists are criminals, while the cons argue that terrorists are combatants. While there is a growing trend in research assessing the link between terrorists as combatants and criminals, there are few accounts regarding the role of the US criminal justice system in prosecuting terrorists and terrorist suspects. I argue that the US criminal justice system extends beyond borders to prosecute terrorists and terrorist suspects.

This argument is tittered along three major lines: The first reason is the emerging role and responsibility of the military that requires the extension of the rule of law institutions to complement the military in its expansion. Secondly, the credibility and competence of the US justice system regarding acquittals and convictions are the hallmarks of any current justice system. Thirdly, the world is interconnected (one world) with shared problems, concerns, challenges, and threats that require joint or collective efforts. Thus, expanding the US criminal justice system beyond borders is a major step towards a global solution to dissuade threats, especially terrorism.

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